Employment Resources

Readings for Academics


Diska, E., & Rogers, E. S. (1996). Employer concerns about hiring persons with psychiatric disability: Results of the employer attitude questionnaire. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 40(1), 31-44.

  • This article discusses the results of a survey of 373 employers representing various industries. The survey was designed to assess their concerns in four major areas : symptomatology, work personality, work performance, and administrative concerns. Results suggested that employers differ in their level of concern by industry type.


Gibb, B. S., Spercher, K. ,& Lodi, K. (1992). Environmental design for individuals with schizophrenia: An assessment tool. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 23(2), 35-40.

  • This article discusses the proposed renovations of a psychiatric facility to provide a more comfortable environment for the patients. The authors discuss visual and acoustical stimuli and how they are perceived by people with schizophrenia, which may have implications for the workplace.


Granger, B., Baron, R. C., & Robinson, S. (1996). A National Study on Job Accommodations for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Final Report. The MRI/Penn Research and Training Center on Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Illness, October, 1996. Available from Matrix Research Institute, 6008 Wayne Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19144, (215)438-8200.

  • This study on job accommodations used focus groups of individuals with psychiatric disabilities, a mail survey of employment support staff, and telephone interviews with service providers, employees and employers. Results describe the most frequently used accommodations, costs and issues of disclosure, lack of ADA awareness and barriers to implementing accommodations.


Kaufman, C. (1993). Reasonable accommodation to mental health disabilities at work: Legal constructs and practical application. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 153-174.

  • Using case studies of reasonable accommodations that did not result in litigation, this article examines the unique accommodations required for workers with a mental health disability. It also presents unsuccessful outcomes to the accommodations process, which indicate that some functional limitations cannot be accommodated.


Kregel, J., & Tomiyasu, Y. (1994). Employers’ attitudes toward workers with disabilities: Effect of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 4(3), 165-173.

  • This article provides findings from a series of structured interviews with 170 randomly selected employers to assess attitudes, knowledge about the ADA and experiences with individuals with disabilities. Employers spoke of their need to respond to the flexibility needed to accommodate employees for both the ADA and Family Medical Leave Act.


MacDonald-Wilson, K. L., Crean, T., Abramson, L., Fishbein, S., & Miller, N. (2002). An investigation of reasonable workplace accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities: Quantitative findings from a multi-site study. Monograph, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University.

  • This study reports on the findings of the 322 accommodations developed for 194 employees in supported employment jobs with 209 employers. This study analyzed the characteristics of the employees, the employers and the service providers, as well as information about the frequency and the types of the accommodations used, direct and indirect costs of the accommodations and the functional limitations of the employees.


Mancuso, L. L. (1990). Reasonable accommodations for workers with psychiatric disabilities. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 14(2), 3-19.

  • This article explains reasonable accommodations and its legal basis, emphasizing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 1973, case law, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. It provides examples of how reasonable accommodations can be applied to assist workers with psychiatric disabilities, and then compares these applications to the more familiar accommodations for workers with physical disabilities.


Mancuso, L. L. (1995). ADA: Fact or fiction? The Journal of the California Alliance for the Mentally Ill, 6(4), 6-9.

  • Since the Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted, the media has been portraying it as abusive of the rights of employers and business owners, rather than protective of the rights of qualified employees. Mancuso addresses the bad press the ADA is receiving and believes that the media needs to base their articles on the facts, not fiction.


Moss, K. (1992). Analysis: Implications of employment complaints filed by people with mental disabilities. Mental Health Policy Resource Center.

  • This study analyzes EEOC complaints related to Section 503 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act to assess implementation activities related to people with mental illness. This law applies to federal government agencies and organizations which receive federal funds. Outcomes of the analysis of the complaints found that only 1 in 10 complaints had a beneficial result. Termination of employment and failure to provide accommodations are 2 major issues for these complaints.


Perlin, M. L. (1995). Sanism and the ADA: Thinking about attitudes. The Journal of the California Alliance for the Mentally Ill, 6(4), 21-22.

  • Perlin, a professor of law at New York Law School, believes that before the ADA can change how mentally disabled citizens are dealt with by society, it must provide a means to deal with sanest attitudes. Perlin contends that “” is a prejudice like other prejudices, such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and ethnic bigotry. Perlin goes on to show how legal language demonstrates bias against mentally disabled individuals and contempt for the mental health profession.


U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1994). Psychiatric disabilities, employment, and the Americans with Disabilities Act OTA-BPP-BBS-124, Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, S/N 052-003-03166-5. Available from: New Orders, Superintendent of Documents, P. O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, (202) 783-3238, Fax (202) 512-2250, $8.50 ea.

  • This book by the Office of Technology Assessment examines current knowledge about psychiatric disabilities and employment, in the context of the ADA ’s requirements. Then, it reviews federal activities directly or indirectly aimed at supporting the ADA ’s employment provisions. This book includes information on the definition of psychiatric disabilities, an overview of the ADA, the ADA ’s tools for effecting employment, and relevant federal agencies’ activities.


U. S. Department of Labor. (1982). A study of accommodations provided to handicapped employees by federal contractors: Final report. Prepared by Berkeley Planning Associates (contract no. J-E 1-0009), Washington, D. C.: Author.

  • The Department of Labor reports the results of surveys of 2,000 federal contractors, disabled workers, phone interviews with 85 firms, and 10 case studies on the subject of reasonable accommodations. The results indicated that most firms found accommodations to be cost-effective and beneficial in providing them with dependable employees.


NOTE: The information contained in these pages is for educational purposes only, and is not legal advice. Individuals should contact the appropriate legal resources for specific legal advice regarding their particular situations.